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Без рубрики russian battlecruiser ww2

In 1992 it … The Kronshtadt-class battlecruisers, with the Soviet designation as Project 69 heavy cruisers, were ordered for the Soviet Navy in the late 1930s. "The total depth of the system was about 4–4.5 m (13–15 ft) amidships, which seems rather shallow. These ranged in length from 40–169 mm (1.6–6.7 in) and totally invalidated all calculations about the amount of force required to free her. This was based on defensive operations along the periphery of the Soviet Union against Anglo-American carrier groups while submarines would attack their lines of communication. By the early 1960s her usefulness had come to an end and she was scrapped, possibly in 1962. Each individual gun weighed 101.58 t (99.98 long tons; 111.97 short tons) and the complete turret weighed 1,370 t (1,350 long tons; 1,510 short tons). The Kirov class, Soviet designation Project 1144 Orlan (sea eagle), is a class of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers of the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. By this time a second example was under construction and abandoned on the slipway, while a third was never started. All of these changes delayed approval of the detailed design until 1951. Fakel-MO and Fakel-MZ antenna comprised the IFF system. [34][35], The size of the Kirov class was approximately 28,000-long-ton (28,000 t) full load. A 125 mm upper and 175-millimeter (6.9 in) lower grating protected the boilers from shells and fragments entering through the uptake openings. The first attempt used brute force provided by the cruisers Molotov and Kerch to unsuccessfully tow her off. [17], "Project 69-I" ("Importnyi" – Imported) modified the two ships to use the German guns, even though they still lacked data for the turrets and their barbettes. All three were begun during the First World War, and represent the second generation of battlecruisers. [11], The waterline belt armor was 180 mm (7.1 in) thick and inclined outwards at an angle of 15° to maximize its effectiveness against both plunging and horizontal fire. Three ships were ordered, but none were ever completed. The guns fired 33.4-kilogram (74 lb) shells at a muzzle velocity of 950–1,000 m/s (3,100–3,300 ft/s) to a maximum horizontal range of 32,390 m (35,420 yd) using 12.92 kg (28.5 lb) of propellant. [44][45], Russian naval ship classes of World War I, No name was officially assigned to the third hull, with Soviet sources referring to the ship either as, The SS-N-19 missile is intended to be replaced by a mix of, "Still making waves: Soviet-era Kirov class battlecruisers serve as a reminder to America of Russian naval prowess", "Kirov (Orlan) Class (Type 1144.1/1144.2) (CGN)", "Kirov Class Battle Cruiser: The World's Largest Surface Combatant", "Russia continues upgrading its Kirov-class nuclear-powered cruisers", "Only one nuclear cruiser to be modernized", "Ремонт и модернизация тяжелого атомного ракетного крейсера "Адмирал Нахимов" идет в соответствии с графиком", "Крейсерова соната: атомный флот отправят в утиль", "Surface Forces: Killing The Kirovs To Save The Fleet", 3M22 Zircon Hypersonic Missile in Development Testing for Russian Navy Kirov-class Cruiser. At the time, the Soviets did not envisage that arming surface ships with anti-ship missiles was required, as then current doctrine had it that submarines were the main platform for attacking enemy shipping. [3], A bigger problem was the resistance of the Shipbuilding Commissariat which said it would be impossible to lay down any ships of new design until about 1950 and that only incremental changes could be made to the designs currently in production. It refused to begin detailed design work pleading the uncertainty of the post-war building situation and the already heavy workload of its design bureau. Built in the late 1980s, the Kirov-class battlecruisers were designed—like much of the Soviet navy at the time—to neutralize American carrier battle groups during warfare. It was first built in the time of the Soviet Union. The most likely explanation is that the designers retained as much of their original work as possible and found room for the more powerful turbines and more numerous boilers necessary to attain Stalin's specified speed by deleting the two rear twin 130 mm turrets, and their magazines, as revealed by a comparison of the 1949 and 1951 sketches. The four Borodino-class battlecruisers (also referred to as Izmail class) of the Imperial Russian Navy were all laid down in December 1912[note 2] at Saint Petersburg for service with the Baltic Fleet. [5], In the 1970s, the Navy initiated a project to construct a nuclear-powered ship capable of accommodating anti-aircraft, anti-ship and anti-submarine guided missiles in a single hull. A number of the ordinary methods to refloat a ship couldn't be used because she was very nearly empty and so nothing could be off-loaded and the rocky bottom meant that it couldn't be excavated out from underneath her. Her hull was launched on 16 April 1954 and her stern, which was more or less complete, was dismantled—her bow hadn't been built when work was suspended a year earlier—and the central, 150-meter (490 ft) long, section was modified for her new role. When they said no, he then asked if any twin 380-millimeter (15 in) turrets were available instead. It was first built in the time of the Soviet Union. The Stalingrad-class battlecruiser, also known as Project 82 (Russian: Тяжёлые крейсера проекта 82), was a Soviet battlecruiser design from 1941. Below the main deck they were protected by only 195–155 mm (7.7–6.1 in) of armor. The guns in this mount could depress to −5° and elevate to 90° at a rate of 25° a second. Metacentric height was estimated at 2.6 m (8 ft 6 in), presumably in the design load condition. When the program was discussed by the Politburo on 29 September 1945 there was no great disagreement on the large cruisers, although Stalin favored increasing the size of their main guns to 305 mm (12.0 in), but did not push the issue when Admiral Kuznetsov resisted. The ship was intended to be commanded by a rear admiral, with its executive officer, political officer and the heads of the gunnery and engineering divisions as captains 1st rank. Fast and powerful, but vulnerable to fire from heavy vessels, the sight of Lion at the head of Beatty’s battlecruiser fleet was a stirring sight which disguised the basic frailty of high speed, lightly armored vessels.. It was towed from Nikolayev to Sevastopol in 1955, but it grounded at the entrance to Sevastopol Bay. [5], The Navy didn't like the compromises made to reduce the displacement down to Stalin's 36,000 tonnes (35,000 long tons) and to achieve the high speed demanded as revealed in a March 1950 meeting in the Kremlin where Stalin revealed critical points about his thoughts for these ships. Two ships were started but none were completed due to World War II. The Giuis-2 also interfered with ultra-shortwave radio reception. This ship has an impressive armament of missiles and gun and an impressive collection of electronics. The latter's design was slightly smaller (2,000 tonnes (2,000 long tons)) than the Navy's 40,000 tonnes (39,000 long tons) design, and had an armor belt 50 mm (2.0 in) thinner, but was otherwise almost identical. The speed, range and aircraft requirements remained the same, although the torpedo tubes were dropped. She steamed in the direction of Kola Inlet with Arctic convoy JW59 in August 1944 and stayed in the Arctic without having fired just one shell for the remainder of WW2. Moskva was planned to be 11.5% finished, but was only 7.5% done. [17], Target data for the More-82 director was derived from the Zalp (NATO designation Half Bow) fire-control radar and Grot rangefinding radars mounted on turrets Nos. Details by Oleg Pomoshnikov, Jan Radziemski Hits: 10514. Read full article. [17], The main air-search radar was the Giuis-2 (NATO designation Cross Bird), a Soviet development of the wartime British Type 291 radar. This was basically identical to the original, but added one new requirement: "Protect the operations of aircraft carriers and conduct joint operations with them. Their barbettes had a maximum of 235 mm (9.3 in) on their forward faces and 200 mm (7.9 in) on the after face. During the Cold War, Russia built four 252m long, 28,000 ton monsters: Huge, heavily armoured ‘battlecruisers’ specifically designed to carry a cargo of high powered, long range missiles. Its controls and cable runs were protected by a 100 mm tube and the lower part of the conning tower's supporting structure was protected with 20 mm plates. [10], The TsKB-17 design bureau proposed variants of the design with both cruise and ballistic missiles. It was a smaller and less-expensive counterpart to the Kronshtadt -class battlecruisers of 1939. The ships of the Stalingrad class were 260 meters long at the waterline and 273.6 meters long overall. These designs weren't reviewed until March 1948, probably because of the need to coordinate reaction to the American Marshall Plan, and Stalin approved the Navy's more heavily protected design. It was a smaller and less … The list of battleships includes all battleships built between c. 1890 and 1946, arranged alphabetically by country. The machinery was arranged on the unit system so that one hit couldn't knock out all the boilers or all the turbines and immobilize the ship. The guns in this mount could depress to −8° and elevate to 83° at a rate of 20° a second. Their thicknesses varied depending on location and ranged oddly from 100 mm (3.9 in) amidships to 20 mm (0.79 in) over the 305 mm magazines. These last weapons were changed to 25 mm (0.98 in) in 1945. However, the Navy and the Shipbuilding Commissariat disagreed about the feasibility of laying down any ships of new design before 1950, so a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of Lavrentiy Beria to resolve the issue. The guns in this mount could depress to −13° and elevate to 85° at a rate of 25° a second. A Russian crew found its way to the United Kingdom at the beginning of 1944 and commissioned the battleship officially as the Arkhangelsk on May 30, 1944. Two ships were laid down in 1939, but development of their new guns lagged significantly behind their construction and six 38-centimeter (15 in) twin-gun turrets were ordered from Germany in 1940. Its rate of fire was 75 rounds per minute and 800 rounds were carried for each gun. 5,000 tonnes (4,900 long tons) of fuel oil were carried which gave a range of 5,000 nmi (9,300 km; 5,800 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). [33][34] Commissioned into the Northern Fleet, Kirov was the largest surface warship, excluding aircraft carriers and amphibious assault vessels, built since the end of the Second World War. Ends of the battlecruisers was quite complex with armor plates of no less 25. ) is the third battlecruiser of the Navy, range and aircraft remained... 43 ] Once admiral Nakhimov ( Russian: Адмирал Нахимов ) is the battlecruiser. One curious feature was that the first and second bulkheads were squeezed together a dozen preliminary had... 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