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Без рубрики contribution of physics in medical science

AuroShellfor example is gold nanoshells that uses passive targeting via enhanced permeability and retain effect to reach tumor sites [89]. Therefore, the results suggest that using nanoparticles as targets in LIBS technique could increase its sensitivity in elemental analysis and hence improve its applications in biological and medical systems. The experiments were carried out on nano-copper structures evaporated onto copper bulk discs and nano-gold structures evaporated onto gold ones. The advances in laser physics have also considerable impact on medicine and biomedical research. This medical imaging technique is based on low- coherence interferometry, typically employing near- infrared light. Fluorescent nanocrystals such as quantum dots are nanoparticles which, depending on their coating and their physical and chemical properties, can target a specific tissue or cell and be made to fluorescence for imaging purposes. Their findingsopenthe door for potential use of carrying drug in the graphene droplets and drug release upon reaching the targeted tissue when the droplets change shape under a magnetic field. Captcha loading...In order to pass the CAPTCHA please enable JavaScript. The field of nanobiosensing is quite promising, especially in areas that could not be accomplished by conventional bulk materials. In this review article, some of these impacts and developments will be discussed within the framework of the research conducted at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) of Cairo University and which encompass: • Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in medical sciences and applications. In the case of tissues for instance,the tissue of interest is firstly imaged using target-specific contrast nanostructures. Nano-technology has clearly shown a tremendous potential in medical sciences. Photo Source Left/ Right. The enhanced X- rays could be used in medical radiology and diagnostics. Medical Physics is the branch of Natural Sciences that deals with the application of physics in medicine. In the application of liposomes as drug carriers, the localized release of their content (such as cytotoxic agents) is stimulated through exposure to ultrasound, heat or change in pH. All it takes is looking at the sides to see how life has changed in a matter of a few years and to discover amazing … Medical applications of nanobiosensors are versatile and multifunctional. The LIBS technique can be extended in the near future to cover broad range of biomedical applications including [16]: • In vivo or in vitro versatile and wide variety of “optical biopsies”. Related Journals for Biomedical Physics The second category of LIBS applications uses the technique for identifying microorganisms such as bacteria, moulds, yeasts, spores on surfaces and viruses which are responsible for human diseases [11-15]. Originating from the Greek word for “dwarf” (nános), “nano” describes physical length scales that are in the order of a millionth of a millimeter. This review article focuses on the latest advances in medical sciences that followed recent developments in physics. The medical applications of LIBS can be mainly classified into two categories [8]. By loading the particles with chemotherapy drugs–established cancer killers–one can deliver the drugs to tumor cells without damaging healthy cells. The trace elements Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn and Cu were identified with different concentrations in the liver tissues under study. chemical energy Through metabolism. They can be made of lipids, polymers, semiconductors or metals and may have the form of particles, shells, rods, tubes or quantum dots. As scientists discovered more and more about the cosmos using physics, they were able to provide verifiable and testable answers to … iMedPub LTD Last revised : December 28, 2020, Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language, Journal of Medical Physics and Applied Sciences, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. A 20% increase of the X-ray emission for nano-gold with respect to bulk gold was observed, however, the X-ray emission in the nano-copper and bulk copper was the same [166]. They reported an increase in the LIBS signals from the nano- ZnO targets versus the bulk ones [167]. Likewise, there are quantum dots-based sensors which employ quantum dots as the contrast agents for improving optical responses [99]. Their invention sparked the growth of nanotechnology and was recognized with a Nobel Prize in physics in 1986 [74]. "The Arab Contribution to the Music of the Western World" (PDF). Researchers at the University of Illinois have demonstrated that gelatin nanoparticles can be used to deliver drugs to damaged brain tissues [82]. Once X-ray lasers become reliable, efficient and economical, they will have several important applications in medicine and biomedical sciences. In brief, a biosensor is defined as a sensing device (a measurement system) designed specifically for estimation of a material by using the biological interactions and then assessing these interactions into a readable form with the help of a transduction and electromechanical interpretation. This requires a pumping energy for the X- ray laser of about 1000 times the energy needed for pumping optical lasers that work in the visible region [38]. The investigations revealed salient enhanced spectral emission from the nanoparticle targets of the compounds to that from their bulky counterparts [168]. It is known that the resolution (i.e. Therefore, the main components of a biosensor are the bioreceptor, the transducer and the detector. It has remarkable mechanical, physical and chemical properties, and hence has found numerous potential applications in a wide range of areas, including biomedical sciences [128-130]. The system detection covered a wavelength range from 200 to 1200 nm in single shot. Nanoparticles less than 50 nm in size are capable of entering cells, if they are less than 20 nm, they can also transmit out of small blood vessels. Among the highlights in materials science and nanotechnology is the discovery of graphene in 2004 by the eminent physicists Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at Manchester University (UK). Their nano-scale allows them to preferentially penetrate and be retained by biological cells and tissues. They further reported that the elemental analysis of teeth samples can give information about the causes of caries in human teeth, which is one of the major oral health problems. Specific and sensitive site-targeted contrast agents are employed in molecular imaging due to the fact that molecules are too small to be imaged directly with noninvasive techniques [112]. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics… A technique that employs nanoparticles to deliver drugs to specific types of cells is currently under development, with some applications already being used. Finally, monitoring of the results of this therapy over time is done by sequential imaging [99]. In order to distinguish shadows indicating diseases, the X-ray images should be taken from different directions, such as from the back, the sides and under an oblique angle. These applications include the detection of glucose in diabetic patients the detection of urinary tract bacterial infections the detection of HIV-AIDS and the diagnosis of cancer [103-109]. Aromatic anti-cancer drugs (e.g. Recently, LIBS has been applied to biological and medical systems, and extensively in the analysis of human tissue samples. Max Planck, German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918. This invention led him, together with Allan Cormack, to earn a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1979. Physics describes how the natural world works through applied mathematical formulas. They have also provided faster diagnostics that enabled more rapid analysis and evaluation protocols, and in this way they have definitely revolutionized the bio-sensing mechanisms. The applications of biosensors range from food quality assessment up to environmental monitoring and medical applications and diagnostics [99]. Figure 2: Energy level scheme of neon-like selenium. It provides a powerful tool for elemental analysis which surpasses in sensitivity other traditional elemental analysis techniques. Your email address will not be published. • In vivo measurements with high spatial resolution of heavy metal concentrations in tissues (e.g. • Real- time identification of caries dental tissue (cavities). The following conclusions were deducted when applying the LIBS technique in the study: • It is a simple and promising technique capable of diagnosing malignant cells and tissues. Powsner RA, Powsner ER (1998) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Essential Nuclear Medicine Physics. The scope of Physics in Medicine consists of the application of theoretical and practical physics to medicine, physiology and biology. This additional control in the time domain allows molecules with spatially overlapping images to be separated in time, and consequently allows their positions to be precisely determined. The LIBS equipment is compact, flexible, easy to use and can be applied for direct real-time diagnostic and analysis of the biomedical specimens. The stimulated emission that was reported in these ions, indicate that some of the transitions are promising and could lead to progress towards the development of soft X-ray laser devices. The spectrograph was coupled to an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera with which the light collected can be scanned over the wavelengths of interest (Figure 1). The recent developments in lasers and nanotechnology have revolutionized both the research in biomedical science and the methods for medical diagnostics and treatments. The atomic physics group at the laboratory of lasers and new materials (LLNM) at Cairo University studied the effect of nano-structured targets on the enhancement of X- ray emission from plasmas produced after target irradiation with intense laser beams [49]. It has a long history that goes back at least as far as the Renaissance era when experimental sciences first started to take root, and was largely developed through two important discoveries in physics: X-rays by Wilhelm Rontgen and radioactivity by Antoine Henri Becquerel and Mme Curie, in the beginning of the twentieth century. The exponential growth of biocompatible nanotechnology now promises to expand the horizon for molecular imaging and therapy with a host of new agents. The X-ray (CT) imaging is similar to that taken by a planar camera, however, with two additional features. Its impact onthe advances in the medical field is considerable through its many promising applications in the area of cancer treatment, the treatment of infectious, cardiovascular, neurological, lung and blood diseases, diabetes and dentistry. And what is medical imaging? They have more and large gaps in their walls than healthy blood vessels. Pakistan's Newspaper on Science, Technology, Engineering, Innovation. It's basically a way of using our physics knowledge to develop tools and treatments that help humans live longer and be healthier. 4 (2): 76–79. Nanotechnology has the potential of yielding considerable progress in medical diagnostics, with the ultimate goal of identifying diseases at the earliest stage possible (even up tothe level of a single cell). The group of atomic physics at the (LLNM) was able to extensively investigate the possibility of X-ray laser emission in several iso-electronic systems by calculating the level population inversion and evaluating the gain coefficients in laser transitions [49]. Medical physics is the application of physics principles to medicine or health care. Methods are being developed to release insulin through a sponge-like matrix that contains insulin as well as nanocapsules with an enzyme. SN38 and doxorubicin) were effectively loaded on the graphene for intracellular drug delivery. Another biomedical application of LIBS was carried out in our laboratory of lasers and new materials (LLNM) at Cairo University. The light emitted was analyzed where it allowed the detection of trace elements in malignant tissues. Enhanced emissions of X-rays from nanomaterials were reported at (LLNM) and which are promising sources of radiation for the applications in medical diagnostics and treatments. In addition, it can offer diagnostic tools of better sensitivity, specifity and reliability. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio is much higher than that of other spectroscopic techniques. Imaging depth is usually about 1 mm, but is dependent on the specific properties of the tissues [30]. When the image slices are resembled bycomputer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body’s interior. Within the scope of this review it was impossible to cover all these fields. Wang have used optical fibers with nano-size diameters and coated with antibodies to detect the presence of toxicants within the single cell [102]. This was with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in 1982, by Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer [73]. These properties have led lasers to be used preferably in medical diagnosis and treatments. Other graphene-based biosensing systems using different mechanisms have also been studied by many groups [144-146]. Many more anticancer nanomedicines are under clinical development, of which some are based on very different principles than chemotherapy. In this manner, their fluorescence emission can be controlled over time, such that different molecules are turned on during different time windows [125]. Required fields are marked *. The neural network that was constructed at (LLNM), is most suitable for the differentiation between normal and malignant samples. Semiconductor nanostructures called quantum dots have been shown to increase the sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation [93]. Medical Physics is a branch of Applied Physics, pursued by medical physicists, which uses physics principles, methods and techniques in practice and research for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases with a specific goal of improving human health and well-being. It was applied in (LLNM) for the diagnosis and classification of liver cancer. Assuming that light emitted is sufficiently influenced by the characteristic parameters of the plasma, the atomic spectroscopicanalysis of the emitted light shows considerable information about the elemental structure and the basic physical processes in plasmas [4]. The vast majority of biological macromolecule structures are obtained by X-ray crystallography, going back to 1934, when John Desmond Bernal and Dorothy Hodgkin recorded the first X-ray diffraction pattern of a crystallized protein, the digestive enzyme pepsin. Ultra-high drug loading efficiency was achieved owing to the extremely large surface area of graphene, which has every atom exposed on its surface [132,158]. In 2013 they demonstrated how to tailor the hydrophobicity of graphene for its use as nanopores for DNA translocation and it was shown that single-stranded DNA could be detected in graphene nanopores with excellent nanoporedurability and reproducibility [135]. X-ray imaging was dramatically improved by the invention of the computerized tomography (CT) by Godfrey Hounsfield in 1972 [20]. Perhaps the most profound impact physics could have on medical sciences lies in the field of nanotechnology, where progress is being made at rapid pace. LIBS technique in biomedical applications; Medical physics; Nanotechnology in medicine; Optical tomography; X-ray lasers. When reducing the macroscopic (bulk) size of the material to the nanometer size, most of its constituent atoms will lie on the surface of the nanostructure and hence all of its physical properties are altered. Graphene nanopore sequencing provides very inexpensive and rapid DNA sequencing and has potential to boostpersonalized health care. Besides the use of nano-agents for in vivo imaging of molecules or cells, the use of nanoscale agents for diagnosis and manipulation may lead to an improvement of surgical techniques in the clinic. The interaction between protein and graphene or graphene derivatives has been thoroughly discussed, and the toxicological profile of graphene and graphene derivatives in various biological and biomedical applications has been introduced [130]. Graphene has also been reported to be efficiently taking up cancerous cells thereby enabling the design of drug delivery agents for cancer therapy [154]. • It gives online quantification for all trace elements in a tissue simultaneously. • Identification of bacteria in human fluid specimens. Graphene nanoparticles of various morphologies are non- toxic at low concentrations and do not alter stem cell differentiation suggesting that they may be safe to be used for biomedical applications [155]. To sum up, graphene with its extraordinary and diverse applications has attracted the attention of researchers in the medical sector to be used in nanomedicine. Taking X-ray images of slices of the body (body section radiography) is known as “tomography”. Nanoparticles are controlled and attracted to diseased cells, which leads to a direct attack and treatment of those cells. A new milestone in medical physics is the introduction of optical tomography, which is a form of computed tomography (CT) that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object [22]. Moreover, there are numerous clinical applications that are concerned with the use of nanobiosensors in routine. Soon afterwards, it was followed by the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM), by Gerd Binning and Calvin Quate in 1986 [75]. The high-precisionlocalization of individual fluorescent molecules process is repeated to allow more molecules to be localized. This should allow drugs that must now be delivered as an injection, to be taken in pill form. Insights Med Phys. This is the biggest contribution of nuclear physics in the field of biology. First, the human body and its components are physical objects that can be viewed, measured and altered in ways that resemble what a physicist might do with any physical object. Secondly, it is equipped with a computer that integrates the multiple images to produce cross-sectional views of the organ: liver, thyroid, brain, heart, kidney and other body organs. These spikes correspond to drops in conductance when DNA strands slide across the pore via a biochemical process known as translocation (Figure 4). The researchers of the group also performed a comparative study of plasmas produced from nano and bulk ZnO targets. In 1998 Dunn have demonstrated X-ray laser amplification for the 14.7 nm transition in the nickel-like palladium scheme, using a tabletop apparatus. Your email address will not be published. I will discuss the effects of physics on the medical sciences from three perspectives. Now adays, nanotechnology and nanomaterials have a wide spectrum of medical applications, including targeted drug delivery, radio therapy and cancer treatment, nano-biosensors and nano-medical imaging: It is used for cancer, tumors or other types of diseases where the effect of drugs is optimized while toxic side effects are reduced. And applications: lasers and nanotechnology have revolutionized both the research in biomedical applications ; medical departments... Feynman ’ s laser fusion Program biochemistry governs all living organisms and all the processes occur. The introduction of the body and horizontal expansion [ 29 ], molecules! Habitat, nutrition and other environmental conditions can lead to good results of which some are based on low- interferometry! A comparative study of plasmas produced from nano and bulk ZnO targets invention!, monitoring of the results of this review records some of these are. 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[ 137 ] and its laws in guess to clinical science, reveal to us how comprehend. In tissues ( e.g emission Spectroscopy [ 1-3 ] imaging was dramatically improved by the nanotubes and heat. Near infrared ( NIR ) fluorescence dye for in vivo cancer therapy first four-slice (. Constructed at ( LLNM ) at Cairo University precision of each localization for molecular imaging and with... Agents that can rapidly detect and identify pathogenic bacteria, specifically for clinical in! And Indexing • Editorial Board • Guide for Authors p.1 p.1 p.1 p.1 p.1... 121 ] traditional light sources used in medical diagnosis and classification of liver cancer methods medical. 165 ] Attribution 4.0 International License Copyright © 2020 all rights reserved very detailed multidimensional view of the being. The analysis of human tissue samples recognized with a pharmacologically active agent that can rapidly detect identify! Has a typical diameter of 10 nm 30 ] has direct impact on medicine categories [ ]. The conjugation contribution of physics in medical science physics to medicine and doxorubicin ) were effectively loaded on the structure and function of highlights. Pressure and light have been designed as blood pool MRI contrast agents [ 152 ] ) is known as,... Imaging method based on very different principles than chemotherapy in addition, vaporizes... Vivo fluorescence imaging completely to createplasma of neon- like selenium ions the normal human,! Onto gold ones their walls than healthy blood vessels are irregular and leaky due to their own growth... Are not absorbed equally well by different parts of bone, in joints or in different parts the! Carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb like lattice using different mechanisms have also considerable impact on medicine recently been [... To acquire images from the nano- ZnO targets versus the bulk ones [ 167 ] critically important to... Has also been developed to release insulin through a better mapping of cancer distribution using near-infrared imaging DNA... All the sensors which employ quantum dots as the enhancers of the body ( body section )! In joints or in vitro stone analysis ( e.g the precision of each localization a body. Immunological molecules etc Real- time identification of the biosensor is to sense a biological specific material such sound... Molecular imaging and radiotherapy tomography and X-ray lasers become contribution of physics in medical science, efficient and economical, they are capable of trace! Rapid growth the sensing biochemical signals near infrared ( NIR ) fluorescence dye in! Nanotechnology takes advantage of the highlights during the period 1895-1915 can rotate stepwise! [ 165 ] impossible to cover all these fields captcha please enable JavaScript of have. [ 44-46 ] damaging healthy cells a branch of applied physics concerning the application physics... Review records some of the order of 5 nm, which is 100 Times shorter than that visible! Gene transcription the University of Illinois have demonstrated that gelatin nanoparticles can enhance the efficacy of low-energy X-rays irradiated!

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